NDT Training

Sagnik NDE is Official Partner of NDT International Chennai, Providing NDT Training. Our team of ASNT Level 3 and PCN NDT Level 3 offering quality and excellence in NDT training services.

All our training courses are accredited by the British Institute of Non Destructive Testing (BINDT). We provide training suitable for both PCN central certification, and also employer based certification to Levels 1and 2 programs. Choose from a variety of NDT methods, Penetrant inspection, Magnetic particle inspection, Radiographic inspection, Ultrasonic inspection, Eddy Current inspection and Advanced NDT. We provide NDT Training to companies in a wide range of industrial sectors; Power, Nuclear, Shipping, Defence, Aerospace, Transport, Leisure, Pre-service, In-Service, Oil, Gas, Electricity and Pressure Vessels.

High frequency sound pulses are emitted from a transducer above a sample. The sound waves propagate through the sample, and reflect at interfaces. The reflected waves are monitored using a detector above the sample. The thickness of the sample, and the depth and type of flaw can be ascertained using this method. The method can be applied to most materials if sound transmission is good. Quick high sensitive results are obtained.

We can provide Ultrasonic Testing training suitable for PCN Levels 1, 2. Alternatively we can provide training suitable for candidates working to an employer written practice based on SNT-TC-1A. Ultrasonic Testing is separated into three specific product sectors for certification purposes, Welds, Wrought Products (Forgings), and Castings.

 

Level 1:

General Theory:

 

  • Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
  • Equipment
  • Testing Techniques
  • Calibration of Testing Systems

 

Sector Specific Theory:

 

  • Detectability of Defects
  • Factors Affecting the Performance of the Ultrasonic Test
  • Codes of Practice and Standards
  • Conducting and Recording the Test

 

Level 2:

 

General Theory:

 

  • Review of Level 1
  • Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
  • Equipment
  • Testing Techniques
  • Calibration of Testing Systems

 

Sector Specific Theory:

  • Detectability of Defects
  • Factors Affecting the Performance of the Ultrasonic Test
  • Codes of Practice and Standards
  • Conducting and Recording the Test
  • Interpretation of Test Results
  • Product Technology Theory

 

Minimum Training and Work Experience Requirements

 

Level 1
40 Hours Training
3 Months Work Experience

 

Level 2
80 Additional Hours Training
9 Additional Months Work Experience

 

Sagnik NDE recommends a further 16 hours training for Level 1

This method consists of radiographic film being placed under a sample. The sample is then exposed to radiation; the radiation passes through the sample, and exposes the film. Discontinuities in the sample affect the exposure of the film. Most materials can be tested by Radiographic inspection, e.g. welds, castings, composites etc. Radiographic testing provides a permanent record and provides a high sensitivity of testing.

There are two types of course available under Radiography, Radiographic Testing and Radiographic Interpretation.

The Radiographic testing course is for NDT personnel wishing to carry out Radiographic testing; this course incorporates interpretation of the Radiograph in addition to the techniques used to create the Radiograph.

To carry out Radiographic testing, a Basic Radiation Safety (BRS) certificate must be held. We can provide training for PCN Levels 1, 2. Alternatively we can provide training suitable for candidates working to an employer written practice based on SNT-TC-1A. Radiographic Testing is separated into two specific product sectors for certification at Levels 1 and 2; Welds, and Castings.

 

Minimum Training and Work Experience Requirements

 

Level 1
40 Hours RT Training
16 Hours BRS Training
3 Months Work Experience

Level 2
80 Hours Training
16 Hours BRS Training
9 Months Work Experience

Magnetic Particle Inspection involves the magnetization of a component, followed by the application of ferromagnetic particles. The particles align along discontinuities in the surface, or shallow sub-surface discontinuities. This method is used to test welds, castings, and forgings for surface or subsurface defects; however it can only be used on ferromagnetic metals.

We can provide Magnetic Particle training suitable for PCNLevels 1, 2. Alternatively we can provide training suitable for candidates working to an employer written practice based on SNT-TC-1A.Below is an example of a syllabus that is used for Magnetic Particle training courses.

 

Level 1:

 

General Theory:

 

  • Principles of Magnetic Particle Inspection
  • Methods of Magnetization
  • Inspection and Detection of Indications
  • Checks and Calibrations
  • Equipment
  • Test Procedures
  • Standards and Specifications
  • Safety Precautions

 

Specific Theory:

 

Application of the Method and use of Codes, Specifications and Procedures, applicable to the Company, including the relevant control checks.

 

Level 2:

 

In addition to Level 1:

 

General Theory:

 

  • Review of Level 1
  • Testing Procedures
  • Detectability of Defects
  • Product Technology
  • Interpretation and Reporting
  • Post Test Procedures
  • Safety Precautions

 

Specific Theory:

 

Application of the Method to the Specific requirements of the Company, in particular making reference to those Codes, Specifications and Procedures used by the Company, including the relevant control checks.

 

Minimum Training and Work Experience Requirements

 

Level 1
16 Hours Training
1 Month Work Experience

 

Level 2
24 Additional Hours Training
3 Additional Months Work Experience

This method involves applying a visible or fluorescent dye to the surface. The dye enters the discontinuities via capillary action. The method can be applied to any non-absorbent material with uncoated surfaces.

We can provide Liquid Penetrant training suitable for PCN Levels 1, 2. Alternatively we can provide training suitable for candidates working to an employer written practice based on SNT-TC-1A. Below is an example of a syllabus that is used for Liquid Penetrant training courses.

 

Level 1:

 

General Theory

 

  • Introduction
  • Principles of Penetrant Inspection
  • Equipment
  • Preparation for Testing
  • Testing Techniques
  • Post Test Procedures
  • Safety Precautions
  • Processing

 

Specific Theory:

 

Application of the Method and use of Codes, Specifications and Procedures, applicable to the Company, including the relevant control checks.

 

Level 2:

In addition to Level 1:

 

General Theory:

 

  • Review of Level 1
  • Testing Procedures and Selection
  • Product Technology
  • Inspection and Evaluation
  • Interpretation and Reporting
  • Post Test Procedures
  • Safety Precautions

 

Specific Theory:

 

Application of the Method to the Specific requirements of the Company, in particular making reference to those Codes, Specifications and Procedures used by the Company, including the relevant control checks.

 

Minimum Training and Work Experience Requirements

 

Level 1
16 Hours Training
1 Month Work Experience

 

Level 2
24 Additional Hours Training
3 Additional Months Work Experience

When a magnetic field cuts through metal, a current is induced. If a magnetic field cuts a wire in a closed circuit, a current is induced round the circuit. However if a magnetic field cuts through a sample of metal that is not connected to a circuit, an ‘Eddy Current’ is produced. This Eddy Current is localized in the metal, and has a flow pattern. The flow pattern is disturbed by discontinuities from the surface to a shallow depth of penetration. The method is quick and very sensitive. No contact with the metal is required. All metals may be subject to this form of testing.

We can provide Eddy Current training suitable for PCN 1, 2. Alternatively we can provide training suitable for candidates working to an employer written practice based on SNT-TC-1A. Eddy Current Testing is separated into three specific product sectors for certification purposes: Welds, Wrought Products (Forgings), and Tubes.

Below is an example of a syllabus that is used for Eddy Current training courses

 

Level 1

 

General Theory:

 

  • Brief History of Testing
  • Basic Principles of Testing
  • Generation of Eddy Currents by means of an AC field
  • Effect of fields created by Eddy Currents
  • Effect of change of impedance on instrumentation
  • Terminology and units
  • Principles of magnetization.
  • Magnetization
  • electromagnetism theory
  • Flux leakage theory and principle
  • Readout Mechanism
  • Types of Eddy Current Sensing Elements
  • Types of Flux Leakage Sensing Elements
  • Safety as applicable to Eddy Current Testing and Electrical Safety

 

Specific Theory:

 

Application of the Method and use of Codes, Specifications and Procedures, applicable to the Company, including the relevant control checks.

 

Level 2

 

In addition to Level 1:

 

General Theory

 

  • Review of Electromagnetic Theory
  • Factors that affect Coil Impedance
  • Factors that affect Flux Leakage Fields
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio
  • Selection of Test Frequency
  • Selection of Method of Magnetization for Flux
  • Leakage Testing
  • Coupling
  • Field Strength and Its Selection
  • Field Orientation for Flux Leakage Testing
  • Instrument Design Consideration
  • Safety as applicable to Eddy Current Testing and Electrical Safety

 

Specific Theory:

 

Application of the Method to the Specific requirements of the Company, in particular making reference to those Codes, Specifications and Procedures used by the Company, including the relevant control checks.

Minimum Training and Work Experience Requirements

 

Level 1
40 Hours Training
3 Months Work Experience

 

Level 2
40 Additional Hours Training
9 Additional Months Work Experience

Ultrasonic Phased Array originated as early as 1959 when Tom Brown at Kelvin and Hughes filed for a patent of an annular dynamically focused transducer system. This system latterly became known as phased array.

During recent years arrays have evolved from 4 piezoelectric elements to electronic beam manipulation using up to 512 individual piezoelectric elements in one transducer housing. Thus facilitating a complex electronic manipulation of the acoustic wave fronts.

Until the past decade industrial application of Ultrasonic Phased Array technology has been rather scarce. Undoubtedly most of this has been down to a lack of computing power that is required for rapid excitation of the multiple element transducers and the need to process large data files that scans produce.

Phased Array technology is the ability to modify electronically the acoustic probe characteristics. Probe modifications are performed by introducing time shifts in the signals sent to and received from individual elements of an array probe. Any Ultrasonic techniques for flaw detection and sizing can be applied using Phased-Array probes.

Phased Array provides high speed electronic scanning without moving parts, improved inspection capabilities through software control of beam characteristics, inspection with multiple angles with a single electronically controlled probe, many configurations; P/E, T/R, TOFD and Tandem, and greater flexibility for inspection of complex geometries (optimized focusing and optimized beam angle).

Phased Array can be used for the following applications; raw material production, aircraft, naval, power generation, petrochemical and anything else that currently applies pulse-echo testing.

 

Training Courses at Sagnik NDE

 

We can provide Ultrasonic Phased Array training suitable for PCN/EN473/ISO 9712 Levels 2. Alternatively we can provide training suitable for candidates working to an employer written practice based on SNT-TC-1A.

 

Level 2:

 

General Theory

 

  • Principles of Phased Array probes
  • Principles of inspection sensitivity
  • Phased Array Instrument
  • Scanning with Phased Array probes
  • Calibration and checks
  • Software for data collection and data analysis
  • Principles of data analysis
  • Software familiarity
  • Use of software tools for defect detection and sizing
  • Data analysis
  • Procedures for verification of flaw existence and position
  • Reporting

 

PCN Minimum Training and Work Experience Requirements – candidate must hold appropriate UTL2 prior to this course

 

Level 2:

 

100 Hours Training
3 Months Work Experience

Time of Flight Diffraction is an Ultrasonic technique developed originally to improve the sizing accuracy of flaws previously detected by other means. Early applications of the technique advanced from solely sizing flaws to applications relying on TOFD for principle detection means, this pioneering technology resulted in major flaws being missed due to poor application and a general lack of understanding by persons operating the equipment. As a result the cliché “give a dog a bad name” stuck for some time and many years passed with several industrial trials and validations being conducted before we reached a stage where now TOFD has become an essential tool in the Ultrasonic toolbox.

 

Training Courses at Sagnik NDE

 

Training is based on sound theoretical material to technically justify principles that TOFD evolves from. The theory is carefully explained to enable the average NDT practitioner to comprehend all aspects. Far too frequently training establishments are guilty of blinding people with science which somewhat defeats the training objective. Therefore great care, patience and skill is required to hold a class of mixed ability in full attentiveness for the course duration and yet this is even more essential with the advanced complexity of contemporary technologies.

Use of animated presentation material together with video projection of instrument displays enhances the visual aids required to enable students to absorb the volume of information. Live data can be processed and scrutinised as a classroom exercise stimulating participation from all students and encouraging vigilant observations to correctly identify relevant flaws on each scan. Use of live video images projected onto a large screen also facilitates easier group training into the correct use of different types of TOFD equipment and related software. Software can be explained by the process of demonstration both for set-up prior to data acquisition and analysis post data acquisition.

Successful applications of TOFD, as with any NDT method, rely upon the essential understanding of the methods weaknesses. Our belief is that unless you can appreciate the limitations of a method then how can you apply it?

Simple practical experiments are used to assist visualization of the constraints of flaw detectability and sizing. This involves near and far surface sensitivity, resolution, timing errors & axial positioning of flaws relative to the probe arrangement. The practical session forms a fundamental foundation of the course to consolidate the theoretical philosophies and produce tangible evidence allowing reliable inspection data to be accrued from careful design of the inspection arrangement. Most students whether novices or experienced to TOFD find the course an eye opener, frequently commenting: “to think of all those inspections done in the past not considering these points”. Use of complementary pulse echo data collected simultaneously to the TOFD scans is a fundamental necessity to guarantee a high probability of detection.

Data acquisition is an element that all three NDT levels are required to perform. It is amazing how many theoreticians struggle to produce quality scan data! Getting involved with the messy end of TOFD is undoubtedly a skill to be honed by experience especially when manually moving a probe pair over the scan surface. This is compounded by application of multiple probe arrangements when attempting to collect all the weld scan data simultaneously. Use of pumped irrigation systems is naturally ideal for multiple probe configurations but does rather mess up the classrooms Wilton carpet! Frivolity aside, the principles of probe stability, coupling and manipulation learned manually can then be extended to automated circumstances allowing discussion to open regarding field applications and what is reasonable to expect from site data.

In turn the focus returns to limitations and capabilities of post test data processing tools, image enhancement, straightening, lateral and back wall removal, synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and rectifying erroneous file data that inadvertently generate false sizing information. A valuable lesson indeed is to comprehend why there are practical constraints on the collection of “the ideal scan”.

Level 2 students are required to produce written techniques for data acquisition. These elements involve the predictive coverage of beam geometry to assure an effective inspection. Hypothetical situations are given on paper to assess their management and understanding of transducer selection, choice of hardware parameters, selection of software parameters and the obligation to deploy complementary pulse-echo beams for supplementary information that cannot be obtained by TOFD.

Justifying the technique subsequently involves theoretical calculation and practical demonstration where representative material is available. This valuable lesson cultures a plane of thinking that blossoms into successful deployment of the TOFD method. No one said the TOFD course would be easy and learning can be a painful experience when all goes pear shaped but the satisfaction of achievement is all the more gratifying when ultimately students graduate into competent practitioners.

Candidates must hold appropriate UTL2 prior to this course